Chapter 3 — Aircraft Accident Investigation Unit Management

Chapter 5-Air Traffic and Other Initial Notification

3-1 Investigator qualification

3-2 Experience

3-3 Qualities of Investigators

3-4 Requiredstaff

3-5 National team / Jordan

3-6 Investigation documents

3-7 Management

3-8 Meeting with flight safety directorate

3-9 Training

CHAPTER 3  

Aircraft Accident Investigation Unit (AAIU) Management

3-1  INVESTIGATOR’S QUALIFICATION

Accident Investigation Unit Investigator shall hold one of the following qualifications as a minimum:

  1. University Degree in Aeronautical Engineering or high Diploma from an Accredited Aviation Technical School.
  2. ATP License.
  3. ATC License with endorsements for Radar Approach and Area Sectors.

Note: AAIU Director’s and Investigators’ Job Description is included in this handbook, appendix 5.

3-2 EXPERIENCE

  1. 10 years for the BSc holder including minimum 5years in flight safety; or 15 years for Diploma degree holder.­
  2. 5000 flight hours for the ATP holder with 5years in flight safety.
  3. 10 years for the ATC License holder.

3-3   QUALITIES OF INVESTIGATOR (ICAO DOC. 9756-AN/965 Part I)

Aircraft Accident Investigation is a highly specialized task which should only be undertaken by trained personnel possessing many qualities, not the least important of which are an inquisitive nature, dedication to this kind of work, diligence and patience. The investigator must have a good sound working knowledge of aviation and factors which effect operations as a whole. Technical skill, perseverance and logic are the tools of his / her profession; humility, integrity, and respect for human dignity his guiding rules.

It is not sufficient to nominate as the occasion arises, a person with specialist aviation knowledge as the investigator, for aircraft accident investigation is a specialist task it self. The standard of the investigator assigned to an accident inquiry determines the thoroughness and class of results obtained more than in any other filed of aeronautics, the longer a well-qualified member serves the more expert he / she becomes. Wherever possible, at least one experienced investigator should be assigned to each inquiry so that a continuing thread of experience may maintain the standards of accident investigation and reporting.

It is desirable that accident investigators have, as a foundation on which to develop their skills, a professional pilot’s background, an aeronautical engineering qualification or, as appropriate, experience in specialized areas of aviation such as operations, air traffic control, meteorology, aerodynamic, design, etc. 

In order to discharge effectively their duties, it is essential that aircraft accident investigators are provided with suitable statutory powers which should, nonetheless, be used with discretion. The investigator will come in contact with many kinds of people the majority of whom recognize than investigator’s status and will more often than not feel obliged to offer all assistance they can without the investigator reminding them of the official powers which are vested in him / her. He / She will also encounter members of the general public who are less well acquainted with his / her activity and who may show reticence to be forthcoming with evidence, stemming from a natural desire not to become involved. It may, in these latter circumstances; it may necessary for the investigator to explain his / her function and to elicit their willing co-operation. 

When called to the scene of the accident, the investigator should endeavor to arrive as soon as possible; in his / her dealings with witnesses and other people concerned in the accident, he / she should be prompt in attending appointments and correct in his / her manner, regardless of how he / she may feel personally. Above all, the investigator must be accurate and factual; he / she must observe, interpret and record clearly and accurately at all times, because his / her record of what is seen, heard and done, may well prove to be the only record available, the analysis of which may have far-reaching effects on individual people, aircraft, equipment and aviation safety as a whole. 

3-4 REQUIRED STAFF (ICAO DOC. 9756-AN/965, Part I)

Experts in the following fields:   

  1. Flight Operations.
  2. Power Plant.
  3. Aircraft Structure.
  4. Aircraft Systems.
  5. Air Traffic Services.
  6. Witness Statement.
  7. Human Factors.
  8. Maintenance Records.
  9. Flight Recorders.
  10. Weather Analysis.
  11. Performance.
  12. Specialists in aviation relevant fields may be employed or consulted based on charge agreements. The following are examples of specialists in:
    1. Aircraft Manufacturing.
    2. Aviation Medicine and Pathology.
    3. Communication.
    4. Psychology and Social Science.

3-5 NATIONAL TEAM / JORDAN

CAA/AAIU has established a national team from varies parties: 

  1.  Flight operations
  2. Aircraft maintenance
  3. Site survey
  4. Survivability cabin safety
  5. Human factors
  6. Witnesses interview
  7. Aircraft structures / airframe
  8. Aircraft systems
  9.  Power plant
  10. Flight records and Recordings
  11. Meteorology
  12. Air traffic management/airports
  13. Medical personnel; pathologists and forensic dentists
  14. Police department
  15. Civil defense / rescuers
  16. Coroner’s office
  17. Department of national defense
  18. Combined investigation (civil and military aircraft)
  19. Search and Rescue
  20.  Aviation security.
  21.  Dangerous goods

3-6 INVESTIGATION DOCUMENTS

The following documents consider as an investigation references to AAIU employees and seconded experts: 

  1. Annex 13; Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation.
  2.  ICAO Doc. 9756; Manual of Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation part I and IV. Addresses of Accident Investigation Authorities are included in part I of this Document as appendix 2 to chapter 4.
  3. ICAO Doc. 6920; Manual of Aircraft Accident Investigation.(4) ICAO Doc. 9156; Accident/Incident Reporting Manual (ADREP Manual.(5) ICAO Doc. 9422; Accident Prevention Manual.(6) ICAO Cir 285; Guidance on Assistance to Aircraft Accident Victims and their Families.(7) JCAR Part 2201.(8) This handbook. (9) Policy and Procedure Manual (Arabic Language) 

3-7 MANAGEMENT

Director AAIU should establish a procedure for controlling the work by conducting meetings with the employees in weekly, monthly and semiannually basis. 

  1. The goals of the meetings are:
  1.  To discuss any investigator’s suggestions regarding the investigation aspects.
  2. Follow up the latest technology in the field of investigation.
  3. Update any information, forms, files and any relevant subjects.
  4.  Discuss any raised problems during investigation. 

 

The corrective action should be proposed by all investigators and determined by Director AAIU.

  1. A1l the meeting minutes are to be written in a dedicated book and filled. The secretary is responsible for filling. 
  2. If required, any lecture about any new subject may be introduced using an available facility. Chairman of the meeting is the Director AAIU and he is responsible to manage the meeting.

3-8 MEETINGS WITH FLIGHT SAFETY DIRECTORATE

During accident/incident investigation, the investigator may discover many deficiencies which may require a prompt action which may require coordination with Directorate Flight Safety, as the first inspection authority. The prompt action should be initiated by Prompt Action Request Form (Form No. 31-6, appendix 2) which will be fulfilled at AAIU and sent to FSD.After two days from the date of the form handing over, a meeting with FSD may be held in order to discuss the deficiencies and the proposed remedy actions.Furthermore, after any accident/incident final report completion, FSD may request a meeting to discuss the recommendation set in the report by AAIU. 

3-9 TRAINING

 n accordance with ICAO Doc. 9756 (Manual of Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation part I) and ICAO Cir.298 (Training Guidelines for Aircraft Accident Investigators), AAIU and seconded investigators should receive the following training upon employment: Phase 1 – Initial TrainingThe aim of the initial training is to familiarize new investigators with the legislation, procedures and requirements of the accident investigation authority. Initial training includes the following:

  1. Administrative arrangement
    1. Applicable legislation covering both Jordan Civil Aviation Law and Regulations;
    2.  International agreements (including Annex 13- Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation);
    3.  Memoranda of understanding with other organizations;
    4. Liaison arrangements with local and national authorities;
    5.  Aircraft accident investigation manuals and procedures;
    6. Definitions and accident classification;
    7. Equipment and tools;
    8. Transport arrangements;
    9.  Ethics and conduct; and
    10. Expenditure control.

  2. Initial response procedures
    1.  On-call procedures;
    2.  Notification of other national authorities and organizations;
    3.  Securing records, recordings and samples;
    4.  Accident site jurisdiction and security;
    5.  Investigator safety including psychological stress;
    6.  Recovery of humane remains;
    7.  Request for autopsies; and
    8.  Family assistance.

  3.  Investigation procedures
    1.  Authority and responsibility;
    2. Size and scope of the investigation;
    3. Investigation management;
    4. Use of specialists;
    5. Parties to the investigation, accredited representatives, advisors and observers; and
    6. Release of information to the news media.
  1. It is beneficial for AAIU investigators to have PPL license in addition to their other expertise. 

Note: Any newly employed person may be exempted from one or more of the above training requirements if he/she proves his/her experience in it/them. Phase 2 – On-The-Job Training 

  1. Practicing the procedures and tasks covered in the initial training;
  2. Gaining familiarity with investigation techniques;
  3. Familiarizing with the investigation tasks at accident site;
  4. Collection of factual information;
  5. Analysis of factual information; and
  6. Development of final report. 

Note: The conduct of on-the-job training is not limited to investigations within Jordan. Basic Accident Investigation Courses After completing the initial familiarization training, the aircraft accident investigator who is under training should attend a basic accident investigation course as soon as practicable, preferably within the first year of training. Advanced Accident Investigation Courses As a trained investigator gains experience, he/she should be enrolled for an advanced accident investigation course. Note: The training should be completed within first three years of employment.  Additional Training Additional training can be obtained by:

  1. Attending refresher courses every three years;b. Attending conferences and seminars conducted by aircraft accident investigation organizations; and
  2.  Attending aircraft type courses on the most common aircraft types used by the Jordanian airlines.
  3. Note: Training on the various aircraft types can be shared equitably among the investigators.

Safety

Legislations & Regulations